In need of help with irrigation?

Look no further, we at Witzenberg Irrigation will help you

In need of help with irrigation?

Look no further, we at Witzenberg Irrigation will help you

SYSTEM DESIGN AND PLANNING

Our team will meet you at your farm where we will make use of the latest land surveying equipment to draw up a precision map.

Taking into consideration the topography, and water sources, we are able to plan the perfect irrigation system for your crops. We have nine steps in our Systems design and planning phase for new developments. These nine steps help us help you to get the optimum layout and pipe design.
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TOTAL FARM PLANNING VIA GOOGLE EARTH

During this step, we assist you with the basic layout of the blocks and its pipelines. The available water sources will determine an estimate of the area that can be developed and which crop or cultivar can be optimised when planted. This will indicate which irrigation system to use.

Examples of these include:

  • Drip irrigation – single line or multiple lines
  • Micro sprinklers
  • Centre Pivot
  • Overhead sprinklers
  • Pop-ups

Once you know the total area as well as the availability of water, it is easy to plan for the future regarding crops, cultivars, and ordering of plants.

GPS SURVEY FOR SUB-CENTIMETER ACCURACY
It is imperative to know the exact area and number of trees before you start tackling the logistics for soil preparation. This is where an accurate map saves you time and money! We perform these surveys with a quad vehicle for large areas or on foot for smaller and impassable areas. The real-time GPS we use ensures you always get the same result for fixed points and contours. The surveyed maps are also used for soil analysis, profile hole markings, and netting structures.
DESIGN OF IRRIGATION BLOCKS
This step sees that a block layout is done from the surveyed map to determine the cultivar area. This is done by sectioning unused areas like roads, netting-anchors or windbreaks. The total area then gets sub divided into viable irrigation blocks, to reduce cost as larger blocks require larger pipes. It also ensures better control over pressures through-out the block. Other reasons for irrigation block division is soil differences or cultivar differences. On this block layout, a design is drawn up to manipulate pipe sizes for water uniformity of no less than 80%. The design calculates the discharge of each sprinkler. The pipe type to be used very important in this phase as each pipe type has different internal dimensions and friction coefficients. The pipes in a block are subdivided into three categories. A branch from the main line (aka. Valve leg) – This is where the control valve is inserted to connect to the main line. These pipes normally make an inverted U-shape to bring the control valve above the surface. High-pressure pipes (class 9 or 12) PVC pipe is used for theses T-offs. The high-pressure pipes are used for uprights as they are more rigid to withstand the elements and vandalism which can be made from PVC pipes, galvanised steel pipes or HDPE pipes. It is also common to see air valves fitted on these uprights as it is normally located at the highest points. Items used in valve leg :
  • Valve & PVC, Steel & HDPE Pipe
  • T-Piece & Bend
  • Male adapter & Bush
  • Flange & Air valve
  • Reducer & Saddle
Sub-mainline (aka. Grommet line) – The sub-main connects to the outlet of the valve leg. The sub-main could be one or a combination of PVC, LDPE or HDPE pipes. The outlets from PVC pipes to laterals are grommets, saddles or solvent weld fittings. Outlets from LDPE pipes- are nylon insert or full flow fittings. Outlets from HDPE pipes are saddles, compression fittings, socket fusion or buttweld fittings. At the end of the sub-main line, a flushing point is installed to remove any collection of debris from the line. Items used in sub-main :
  • PVC, HDPE & LDPE pipe
  • Reducer & Saddles
  • Grommets & Flush point
Lateral (sprinkler line) –The lateral connects to the outlet of the sub-main. Lateral pipes include LDPE, dripper pipe, PVC or HDPE pipe. The laterals supply the water to sprinklers. In non-compensated systems, these pipe sizes are crucial to regulating uniformity throughout the block. When LDPE and dripper laterals are used, the end of the pipe is bent over to close the lateral and fastened with a plastic ring to create an easy flush point. For PVC or HDPE laterals a plug or valve will be used as a flash point. Items used in laterals :
  • LDPE pipe
  • Dripper pipe
  • PVC pipe
  • HDPE pipe
  • Couplings
  • Reducers
  • Micro punch
DESIGN MAIN LINE
The main line is the main artery that supplies water across the farm. All water requirements should be fulfilled by this line. In this step, the route and size of the pipe are designed. The main line could be one or a combination of, PVC, HDPE, galvanized steel and or stainless steel pipes. The route of the pipe should be planned as near to a road as possible to ensure easy installation and service of the pipe. This is not always possible or economical, then the pipe is installed on the shortest route possible. A Ringfed system could also be designed to reduce friction losses in the pipeline and to link multiple water sources together. The size of the pipe is determined by the required flow rate from the blocks as designed in the previous step. An existing pump can also determine a pipeline size. Pipe class (pressure rating) is determined by the operating pressure, water hammer, static pressure, shut-off pressure and various other factors. Air valves are installed on the mainline to release air from the mainline system. Air in the mainline is a sure way to get pipe bursts. Water is fed into the mainline system either by a pump or gravity fed from a higher situated water source. Items used in the mainline:
  • PVC & HDPE pipe
  • Galvanized steel & Stainless steel pipe
  • Bends, Elbows, Tee, Saddle, Stub flange, Air valve
  • Butterfly valve & Check valve
PUMP AND FILTER STATION DESIGN
The pump station can be seen as lungs, heart, and liver in the human body. The lungs will be the pre-filtration i.e. a strainer and frog trap on the suction pipe. The pump acts as the heart. It supplies the water to the main lines. The filters will act as the liver, to remove the finer debris that got past the pre-pump filtration, to ensure there are no blockages in the irrigation system’s outlets (sprinklers). In this phase, a pump is selected to deliver the water required to the blocks and to flush the filter. In larger pump stations it is safer to have 2 smaller pumps than one large pump. With the two pump set-up, a single pump can still run in case of a pump failure or pump service. Available electricity is also taken into account when sizing a pump as larger pumps require larger motors to run. It is also possible to have submersible pumps to extract underground water. The filter bank is selected to be able to clean the required flow rate without blocking to fast and for allowable friction losses. Additional filters allow for flushing while irrigating. Additional pressure can be acquired during flushing cycles by closing a main valve after the filter bank. Automatic filters are available that flush either on a preset time, pressure differential, both or external input. Items used in the pump and filter station :
  • Pump & Motor
  • VSD/VFD (Variable speed drive aka Variable frequency drive)
  • Starter & Base plate
  • Tyre coupling
  • Main valve & Frog trap
  • Dam shut-off valve
  • Inlet strainer & Filter battery
  • Filter flush unit
  • PS/PR Valves, RS Valves, Gate valves
VALVE CLUSTER LAYOUT
Valve clusters are sketches of the fittings used to build the valve legs. These sketches ensure the correct fittings are used by the installer in the same position as designed to save time puzzling out the valve legs. In this phase, it is discussed with the farmer how the valve leg will be connected to the main line. The placement of the valve is now determined to calculate how many elbows will be needed. Items used in valve leg :
  • Valve, PVC pipe, Steel pipe
  • HDPE Pipe, T-Piece
  • Bend & Male adaptor
  • Flange & Air valve
  • Bush, Reducer & Saddle
REVISION OF DESIGN – DISCUSSION WITH CLIENT
In this phase, the complete design is discussed with the customer to decide on final materials to be used. A mainline path is checked to ensure it is a viable route. Valve clusters are reviewed to add any extra fittings, and the pump station is reviewed to see if the size of the pump station is viable. After discussion, all changes are made back at the office to ensure the farmer gets the result he wants and needs.
STAKEOUT OF BLOCKS AND MAIN LINE
In this phase, the block borders and the main line is staked out in the field. This is done by setting up the GPS to a reference point on the ground.
After the GPS is calibrated the blocks, roads, mainlines and any other necessary points can be pinpointed on the ground.
BILL OF QUANTITIES AND QUOTATION

The final phase of design is to draw up a bill of quantities of all items needed to install the system. From this quantity list, a quotation can be generated. Designs are often done years in advance to create a budget and an overall plan for the near future and even a couple of years ahead.

TOTAL FARM PLANNING VIA GOOGLE EARTH
During this step, we assist you with the basic layout of the blocks and its pipelines. The available water sources will determine an estimate of the area that can be developed and which crop or cultivar can be optimised when planted. This will indicate which irrigation system to use. Examples of these include:
  • Drip irrigation – single line or multiple lines
  • Micro sprinklers
  • Centre Pivot
  • Overhead sprinklers
  • Pop-ups
Once you know the total area as well as the availability of water, it is easy to plan for the future regarding crops, cultivars, and ordering of plants.
GPS SURVEY FOR SUB-CENTIMETER ACCURACY
It is imperative to know the exact area and number of trees before you start tackling the logistics for soil preparation. This is where an accurate map saves you time and money! We perform these surveys with a quad vehicle for large areas or on foot for smaller and impassable areas. The real-time GPS we use ensures you always get the same result for fixed points and contours. The surveyed maps are also used for soil analysis, profile hole markings, and netting structures.
DESIGN OF IRRIGATION BLOCKS
This step sees that a block layout is done from the surveyed map to determine the cultivar area. This is done by sectioning unused areas like roads, netting-anchors or windbreaks. The total area then gets sub divided into viable irrigation blocks, to reduce cost as larger blocks require larger pipes. It also ensures better control over pressures through-out the block. Other reasons for irrigation block division is soil differences or cultivar differences. On this block layout, a design is drawn up to manipulate pipe sizes for water uniformity of no less than 80%. The design calculates the discharge of each sprinkler. The pipe type to be used very important in this phase as each pipe type has different internal dimensions and friction coefficients. The pipes in a block are subdivided into three categories. A branch from the main line (aka. Valve leg) – This is where the control valve is inserted to connect to the main line. These pipes normally make an inverted U-shape to bring the control valve above the surface. High-pressure pipes (class 9 or 12) PVC pipe is used for theses T-offs. The high-pressure pipes are used for uprights as they are more rigid to withstand the elements and vandalism which can be made from PVC pipes, galvanised steel pipes or HDPE pipes. It is also common to see air valves fitted on these uprights as it is normally located at the highest points. Items used in valve leg :
  • Valve & PVC, Steel & HDPE Pipe
  • T-Piece & Bend
  • Male adapter & Bush
  • Flange & Air valve
  • Reducer & Saddle
Sub-mainline (aka. Grommet line) – The sub-main connects to the outlet of the valve leg. The sub-main could be one or a combination of PVC, LDPE or HDPE pipes. The outlets from PVC pipes to laterals are grommets, saddles or solvent weld fittings. Outlets from LDPE pipes- are nylon insert or full flow fittings. Outlets from HDPE pipes are saddles, compression fittings, socket fusion or buttweld fittings. At the end of the sub-main line, a flushing point is installed to remove any collection of debris from the line. Items used in sub-main :
  • PVC, HDPE & LDPE pipe
  • Reducer & Saddles
  • Grommets & Flush point
Lateral (sprinkler line) –The lateral connects to the outlet of the sub-main. Lateral pipes include LDPE, dripper pipe, PVC or HDPE pipe. The laterals supply the water to sprinklers. In non-compensated systems, these pipe sizes are crucial to regulating uniformity throughout the block. When LDPE and dripper laterals are used, the end of the pipe is bent over to close the lateral and fastened with a plastic ring to create an easy flush point. For PVC or HDPE laterals a plug or valve will be used as a flash point. Items used in laterals :
  • LDPE pipe
  • Dripper pipe
  • PVC pipe
  • HDPE pipe
  • Couplings
  • Reducers
  • Micro punch
DESIGN MAIN LINE
The main line is the main artery that supplies water across the farm. All water requirements should be fulfilled by this line. In this step, the route and size of the pipe are designed. The main line could be one or a combination of, PVC, HDPE, galvanized steel and or stainless steel pipes. The route of the pipe should be planned as near to a road as possible to ensure easy installation and service of the pipe. This is not always possible or economical, then the pipe is installed on the shortest route possible. A Ringfed system could also be designed to reduce friction losses in the pipeline and to link multiple water sources together. The size of the pipe is determined by the required flow rate from the blocks as designed in the previous step. An existing pump can also determine a pipeline size. Pipe class (pressure rating) is determined by the operating pressure, water hammer, static pressure, shut-off pressure and various other factors. Air valves are installed on the mainline to release air from the mainline system. Air in the mainline is a sure way to get pipe bursts. Water is fed into the mainline system either by a pump or gravity fed from a higher situated water source. Items used in the mainline:
  • PVC & HDPE pipe
  • Galvanized steel & Stainless steel pipe
  • Bends, Elbows, Tee, Saddle, Stub flange, Air valve
  • Butterfly valve & Check valve
PUMP AND FILTER STATION DESIGN
The pump station can be seen as lungs, heart, and liver in the human body. The lungs will be the pre-filtration i.e. a strainer and frog trap on the suction pipe. The pump acts as the heart. It supplies the water to the main lines. The filters will act as the liver, to remove the finer debris that got past the pre-pump filtration, to ensure there are no blockages in the irrigation system’s outlets (sprinklers). In this phase, a pump is selected to deliver the water required to the blocks and to flush the filter. In larger pump stations it is safer to have 2 smaller pumps than one large pump. With the two pump set-up, a single pump can still run in case of a pump failure or pump service. Available electricity is also taken into account when sizing a pump as larger pumps require larger motors to run. It is also possible to have submersible pumps to extract underground water. The filter bank is selected to be able to clean the required flow rate without blocking to fast and for allowable friction losses. Additional filters allow for flushing while irrigating. Additional pressure can be acquired during flushing cycles by closing a main valve after the filter bank. Automatic filters are available that flush either on a preset time, pressure differential, both or external input. Items used in the pump and filter station :
  • Pump & Motor
  • VSD/VFD (Variable speed drive aka Variable frequency drive)
  • Starter & Base plate
  • Tyre coupling
  • Main valve & Frog trap
  • Dam shut-off valve
  • Inlet strainer & Filter battery
  • Filter flush unit
  • PS/PR Valves, RS Valves, Gate valves
VALVE CLUSTER LAYOUT
Valve clusters are sketches of the fittings used to build the valve legs. These sketches ensure the correct fittings are used by the installer in the same position as designed to save time puzzling out the valve legs. In this phase, it is discussed with the farmer how the valve leg will be connected to the main line. The placement of the valve is now determined to calculate how many elbows will be needed. Items used in valve leg :
  • Valve, PVC pipe, Steel pipe
  • HDPE Pipe, T-Piece
  • Bend & Male adaptor
  • Flange & Air valve
  • Bush, Reducer & Saddle
REVISION OF DESIGN – DISCUSSION WITH CLIENT
In this phase, the complete design is discussed with the customer to decide on final materials to be used. A mainline path is checked to ensure it is a viable route. Valve clusters are reviewed to add any extra fittings, and the pump station is reviewed to see if the size of the pump station is viable. After discussion, all changes are made back at the office to ensure the farmer gets the result he wants and needs.
STAKEOUT OF BLOCKS AND MAIN LINE
In this phase, the block borders and the main line is staked out in the field. This is done by setting up the GPS to a reference point on the ground.
After the GPS is calibrated the blocks, roads, mainlines and any other necessary points can be pinpointed on the ground.
BILL OF QUANTITIES AND QUOTATION

The final phase of design is to draw up a bill of quantities of all items needed to install the system. From this quantity list, a quotation can be generated. Designs are often done years in advance to create a budget and an overall plan for the near future and even a couple of years ahead.

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